Simply put, bandwidth and its function

Simply put, bandwidth and its function

The Internet has become an important part of our daily lives. We need the internet to meet even our smallest needs like eating, sleeping, getting up. The Internet is a huge electronic network.

It can be both wired and wireless. While using the Internet in both options, we sometimes hear a word, bandwidth.

Most of us have no idea what bandwidth is. Today we are discussing what is bandwidth, how it works, where and how it is used, etc.

What is bandwidth?

Bandwidth is a method of measuring how much data can be moved from one place to another at a given time. Bandwidth is generally expressed as bitrate.

It is measured in bits per second. Bandwidth refers to the transmission capacity of a connection. When it comes to the quality and speed of the internet, it becomes an important factor.

Where and how is the bandwidth used?

Computers use bandwidth in technical areas other than the Internet. In the case of signal processing, for example, it is used to differentiate between the upper and lower frequency of a frequency.

Such broadcasting can even happen on radio. On the radio, it is measured as a herd. Bandwidth is also used to measure the water in the pipe.

In this way, gallons per minute are measured instead of bits per second. As mentioned earlier, bandwidth is measured in bits per second. Which is known as BPS.

However, in recent times it has become more convenient to express bandwidth. Today's networks have a lot of bandwidth capacity. Which can be easily expressed even as a small unit.

It has become easy to see and understand the big numbers of the matrix. Mbps (megabits per second), Gbps (gigabits per second), TBPS (terabytes per second).

Terabits are followed by Petabit, Exhibit, Jitabit, Yottabit. Which represents the additional power of each decade.

Method of measuring bandwidth:

There are several ways to measure bandwidth. Software or firmware or network interfaces are commonly used to measure bandwidth. For example, TTCP, PRTG network monitor tests can be used to measure general bandwidth.

TTCP measures the impact capacity on an IP network between two hosts (send and receive). That is, it measures how fast the two networks are communicating.

Indicates the number of bytes and the total number of bytes traveling between the two hosts. PRTG is used to measure bandwidth over long intervals.

It represents bandwidth as a graphic interface or chart. Also measures traffic between different interfaces.

Generally, the total amount of traffic sent and received between a specific time period is calculated to measure bandwidth. As a result, it is expressed as the number of numbers measured per second.

There is another way to measure bandwidth. Some files of a certain size are transferred and how long it takes is measured.

The result is then converted to BPS. In this process, the file size is divided by the total time taken. This method is used to test internet speed on most computers.

How does bandwidth work?

The telecommunications center needs to find out where and in which application the bandwidth is being used and how much bandwidth is required for that. There are two ways to do this.

First, you need to find out how much bandwidth is available. It is expressed in bits per second.

And secondly, the average bandwidth required for a computer or mobile application is decided. This is also expressed in bits per second.

The larger the bandwidth network, the more data it can send and receive at once. Let's look at an example of how bandwidth works.

The larger a water pipe, the more water can flow through it. Bandwidth works on this principle. The larger the communication link on the network, the more data it can transfer in a second.

The difference between bandwidth and speed

Sometimes there is a dilemma between bandwidth and speed. Bandwidth means how much information you receive in a second.

Speed ​​means how fast the information is downloaded or received. Let's take this as an example. Suppose we have to fill a bucket of water. For that, the bucket fills up faster when you use a tap with a wider mouth than a tap with a thin mouth.

Think of the bandwidth as water and the speed at which the water is moving in the bucket. To end the dilemma of bandwidth and speed, speed is called network speed and not bandwidth speed.

Why is bandwidth measured?

Bandwidth needs to be measured for several reasons. Suppose you purchased an Internet connection from a service provider.

Now you have to check whether the promised speed of internet speed is being fulfilled or not. In this case, we need to measure the bandwidth.

DSL report speed test is used for online bandwidth tests. The internet service provider promises to give you 20 Mbps internet speed and even charges for it.

You have to measure the bandwidth to see if such a promise has been fulfilled. Most bandwidth is purchased from telecom companies.

Most bandwidth is sold as 'up to'. For example, 'Up to 20 Mbps'. This means that the customer can get up to 20 Mbps internet speed.

But it is not necessary to always maintain the same speed in the connection. Speed ​​may increase or decrease at different times or under different circumstances.

Microsoft shutting down Skype!

Skype is a video calling tool that most of us have heard of and used. While there is talk of new platforms like Zoom, Google Meet, Microsoft Teams in the market today, the old Skype has ceased to matter. At one time, Skype was the most used language, whether with relatives abroad or online meetings.

Skype, which has become popular among all, has been shut down today during the Kovid-19 epidemic. This topic is of interest to everyone. With the disappearance of Skype, a product of Microsoft, the company's other product teams are expanding.

Skype is still lagging behind due to the company's investment in team expansion. The question is whether Microsoft will eventually shut down Skype altogether.

Meanwhile, the new Windows 11 released by Microsoft has helped to prove it even more. There is a lot of download and use of the early version of Windows 11 now.

Thus, the new version provided by the company does not have Skype pre-installed as before. While the company has pre-installed the team as a video tool.

This suggests that the company may now be preparing to exit Skype altogether. Meanwhile, some have even called Skype 'Bye Bye' and 'Rip Skype'.

Webcam Mandatory to Upgrade Windows 11 on Laptop!

 Microsoft last Thursday announced Windows 11 as the 'next generation'. If you are looking to upgrade to Windows 11, there is new news for you.

Not only the minimum RAM and processor for Windows 11 upgrade, now you have to study whether your laptop has a camera or not, and what quality it is. A document published by Microsoft states that laptops need a mandatory camera to upgrade to Windows 11 after 2023.

For those who are aware of privacy, this may not be good news. According to a report by Nevin, the company's plan will be implemented from January 1, 2023, not immediately.

According to the document, the webcam will be required on all devices except desktop PC. Microsoft also requires at least an HD quality (1280x720) webcam, which supports Auto White Balance and Auto Exposure.

After Microsoft's decision, laptop and tablet makers are under pressure to maintain the same level of camera setup.

Here's how to protect your social media account from being hacked

 Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey's Twitter account was recently hacked. Soon after, some racist tweets were made. You too can reach this stage at any time. Today we are giving you tips on what to do to protect your social media account from hackers.

1. Two-step verification

To secure your account, you first need to enable two-factor authentication. This will require you to verify your identity via text message, email, or phone call while signing in to any account.

If you haven't used this feature, enable two-step verification on your account. Facebook, Gmail, Twitter, Instagram, and other social networks have this kind of verification facility.

2: Keep the mobile app up to date

You need to constantly update the apps on your mobile. This will increase the security of your phone. App developers are always trying to avert new threats to the app through updates.

So always use the latest version of the app. This is to prevent hackers from reaching you through the app.

3. Keep an eye on suspicious activity

It is very important to keep an eye on what is happening in your account for security. The sooner you can detect any suspicious activity, the sooner you will be able to control it.

This way you can prevent hacking. Any account you use contains personal data, including your email and mobile number. It needs to be protected from hackers.

Sometimes it happens that the data of the third-party app connected to the social network account gets stolen. So you have to make sure that you are using the official app.

4. Take security precautions on public networks

If you use a coffee shop or any other public WiFi, you have to be very careful. Most of us are fascinated by free WiFi.

But it is also important to be careful about the damage it can cause. Anyone can use it when it comes to open networks. This increases the level of danger.

So don't use any open network unless absolutely necessary. Do not run personal accounts or sensitive applications even if you are connected.

5. Put a different email ID on the social network

The first thing you need to understand is that you cannot be safe from all possible attacks on social media or the Internet. Suppose your social network account is hacked, there is a risk that hackers may gain access to your email.

If we are using the same email ID for our important information and transactions, then hackers can gain access to your bank details, personal emails, etc. This way you can strengthen your security online at different levels.

How does a ransomware attack happen? What to do to avoid

 Recently, the number of ransomware attacks in Nepal has been increasing. The Nepal Telecommunications Authority (NTAA) has issued a notice to prevent the rise of ransomware attacks due to failure to take general precautions.

What is ransomware?

Ransomware is a type of malware that is used by hackers/cybercriminals to corrupt and destroy important data and computer systems via email/internet and pen drives or infected (infected) computers.

Also, Encryption Lock is used to making the computer user's data public or to use important data until the ransom money is received from the computer user.

In some cases, hackers/cybercriminals ask for money/bitcoin (CryptoCurrency) from the computer user, but when they do not pay within that time period, important data is destroyed forever and hacker/cybercriminal does not provide the user's data even if he receives the requested amount/bitcoin.

There are many types of ransomware such as WannaCry, UIWIX CryptoLocker, NotPetya, Bad Rabbit, Cerber, Crysis CryptoWall GoldenEye, Jigsaw, Locky, etc.

Where does the ransomware attack come from?

Ransomware attacks also occur when Internet users click on unsafe file attachments and links received via email or use an infected pen drive (USB Stick / Driver) to transfer/copy files.

Similarly, when you click on the pop-up window/banner on the visited unsafe website, when you click on the unsafe attachments and links found on social networks like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and WhatsApp, and Viber, and when you download freeware/shareware and pirated software, music/video. There may be a ransomware attack.

In this way, when you click on the link or attachment, the ransomware is downloaded and installed on the user's computer/mobile.

How to stay safe from ransomware attacks?

To be safe from ransomware attacks, important backups of important data stored on computers and computer systems should be kept regularly and if for some reason computers and computer systems are hacked and hackers (Data Encryption) demand payment for such data decryption, such hackers should not be paid. Data Decryption is not guaranteed after hacker payment.

Similarly, strong passwords should be used in computers, computer systems, and digital accounts and such passwords should be changed from time to time. Multi-Factor Authentication (such as Two Factor Authentication, Mobile Number, OTP, Fingerprint, etc.) should be used to protect computers and computer systems. Regularly scan the computer and computer system using Anti-Virus / Anti-Malware / Spam Filter.

Operating System, Anti-Virus / Anti-Malware / Spam Filter including computer and software used in a computer system should be updated regularly. Also, don't use unsafe websites like Freeware, Pirated software/games, free music/video, pornographic content available.

When visiting such unsafe websites, you should not click on the promotional links in the pop-up window/banner, and this attack can be prevented by not downloading freeware/shareware and pirated software, music/video/games from such websites.

Similarly, do not click on suspicious attachments and links found on social networks and only click on computer and computer systems by correctly identifying email/internet links and attachments. Unusually found pen drives should not be used on computers and computer systems.

Problems with debit/credit card production due to lack of chip

The global chip shortage has put online payment systems at risk. The Smart Payments Association has warned that there will be serious obstacles if the issue is not addressed in the context of increasing demand for payment cards for daily life and business.

The association, which is the trade body of the card and mobile payment industry, has called on government bodies and stakeholders to pay attention to this. According to him, more than 3 billion EMV based payment cards are produced in the world every year.

When opening a bank account, renewing a card, or taking a new one, financial institutions offer debit or credit cards. But card makers are finding it difficult to get chips due to supply chain disruptions.

Currently, payment cards are used in about 90 percent of non-cash physical stores in the world. Such stars may have to bear the brunt of the lack of chips.

Due to the Corona epidemic, chip makers shut down substantial chip production last year. Even though it is resuming now, production is under pressure due to the high backlog.

Manufacturers of PCs, mobiles and tablets, gaming consoles as well as automobiles are facing problems due to the lack of chips in the semiconductor industry. Due to an insufficient supply of chips, equipment manufacturers have not been able to streamline their production. This problem is spreading to other areas as well.